A unit of angular measurement equal to the angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc whose length is equal to the radius of the circle.

Example: 1 radian = ~ 57.3 degrees; 2π radians = 360 degrees

## Radiance

Brightness; the radiant energy per unit solid angle and per unit projected area of a radiating surface.

## Radiant Energy

## Radiant Flux

The rate of emission or transmission of radiant energy.

## Radiant Intensity

Radiant power, or flux, expressed as emission per unit solid angle about the direction of the light in a given length of time.

## Radiant Power

The amount of radiant energy available per unit; the radiant flux.

## Raman Effect

Part of the energy in a photon is transferred to (or from) the vibrational/rotational energy of a molecule.

## Ramper

Power controls for accomplishing the ramping steps; may be computer-controlled.