Electromagnetic Wave

A disturbance which propagates outward from an electric charge which oscillates or is accelerated. Includes radio waves; X-rays; gamma rays; and infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light.

Enclosed Laser

A laser that is contained within a protective housing of itself or of the laser or laser system in which it is incorporated. Opening or removal of the protective housing provides additional access to laser radiation above the applicable maximum permissible exposure (MPE) than possible with the protective housing in place.

[box]Example: an embedded laser is one type of enclosed laser.[/box]

Engineering Control Measures

The primary and preferred method to ensure safe laser operation. They are comprised of measures designed, engineered and incorporated into a laser or laser system which require minimal to no training for individuals who may be exposed to laser output.

[box]Examples: protective housings, interlocks on removable protective housings, activated shutters, watch-dog timers, etc.[/box]

Enhanced Pulsing

Electronic modulation of a laser beam to produce high peak power at the initial stage of the pulse. This allows rapid vaporization of the material without heating the surrounding area. Such pulses are many times the peak power of the CW mode.